Risks in Capital Budgeting

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Risks in Capital Budgeting are from five different sources. They are:   Project-specific risk Project-specific risk could be traced to something quite specific to the project. Managerial deficiencies or error in estimation of cash flows or discount rate may lead to a situation of actual cash flows realised being less than the projected cash flow. […]

Baumol Model

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The Baumol model helps in determining the minimum amount of cash that a manager can obtain by converting securities into cash. Baumol model is an approach to establish a firm’s optimum cash balance under certainty. As such, firms attempt to minimise the sum of the cost of holding cash and the cost of converting marketable […]

Structure of the Research Report

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The following are the structure of the Research Report   Preliminary Section This section mainly consists of identification information for the study conducted. It has the following individual elements Title page Letter of transmittal Letter of authorization Table of contents Executive summary Acknowledgements   Main Report This is the most significant and academically robust part […]

Causes of Grievance

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Grievances may occur for a number of reasons in an organizations. The following are some of the general reason for Causes of Grievance:   Economic Wage fixation, over time bonus, wage revision etc. Employees may feel that they are paid less when compared to others.   Work environment Poor physical conditions of workplace, tight production […]

Index/Trend Analysis

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Trend Analysis is a relatively straightforward quantitative demand forecasting technique that uses the historical relationship between the operational index (i.e. sales level) and the number of employees required by the organization (demand for labour) to forecast future requirements.   Steps involved in an effective index/trend analysis are: Select the appropriate business/operational index - The HR […]

Delphi Technique

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Delphi Technique is a carefully designed program of sequential, individual interrogations interspersed with information feedback on the opinions expressed by the other participants in previous rounds.   The following are steps associated with this technique: Define and refine the issue or question The group targeted for forecasting must be well defined so relevant, focused and […]

Effective Report Writing Guidelines

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The following are the guidelines for the effective report writing   Clear report mandate: While writing the research problem statement and study background, the writer needs to be absolutely clear in terms of why and how the problem was formulated.   Clearly designed methodology: Any research study has its unique orientation and scope and thus […]

Descriptive Research Design

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As the name implies, the objective of descriptive research studies is to provide a comprehensive and detailed explanation of the phenomena under study. The intended objective might be to give a detailed sketch or profile of the respondent population being studied. For example, to design an advertising and sales promotion campaign for high-end watches, a […]

Research and Steps in Research Study

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Different scholars have interpreted the term ‘research’ in many ways.   For instance, Fred Kerlinger (1986) stated that ‘Scientific research is a systematic, controlled and critical investigation of propositions about various phenomena.’ Grinnell (1993) has simplified the debate and stated ‘The word research is composed of two syllables, ‘re’ and ‘search’.   The following are […]

Project Organisation

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Project organisation is one of the most crucial parts of project planning. It is a structure that is designed for the successful execution of a project. It provides a complete framework for a project and ensures that the project is arranged in a manageable structure. In project organisation, the complexity of a project is structured […]

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