Quality Management Theories

The following are some of the quality management theories.


Total Quality Management (TQM):

This quality assurance theory emphasises on product quality. The definition of TQM is “it is a management approach to long-term success by satisfying customers”. According to this concept, all the members of an organisation contribute towards the improvement of products, processes, and services, thereby improving their working culture.


Continuous Improvement/Kaizen:

This philosophy stresses on constant improvement through the right mind-set and attitude. Kaizen is a Japanese term for “continuous improvement.” Kaizen means (Kai = Change, Zen = Good) or ‘Good Change’, which is achieved through improvement of little things and setting and achieving higher standards.


Just-In-Time (JIT):

This method focuses on reducing resources, and therefore cost. Henry Ford described the JIT concept in his 1923 book, ‘My Life and Work’. JIT works on demand-pull basis, which means production starts when the orders are received.

The actual orders dictate the production quantity. JIT works in coordination with TQM and continuous improvement, as it requires proper planning for a project to be a success. Advanced technology is a mandate for JIT to provide backup with production scheduling and fulfillment of orders.

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